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Singapore

  • President:Halimah Yacob
  • Prime Minister:Lee Hsien Loong
  • Capital city:Singapore
  • Languages:Mandarin (official) 36.3%, English (official) 29.8%, Malay (official) 11.9%, Hokkien 8.1%, Cantonese 4.1%, Tamil (official) 3.2%, Teochew 3.2%, other Indian languages 1.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.1%, other 1.1% (2010 est.)
  • Government
  • National statistics office
  • Population, persons:5,638,676 (2018)
  • Area, sq km:709
  • GDP per capita, US$:64,582 (2018)
  • GDP, billion current US$:364.2 (2018)
  • GINI index:No data
  • Ease of Doing Business rank:2
All datasets:  A B C D E F G H I N P R S T W
  • A
    • April 2019
      Source: International Monetary Fund
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 April, 2019
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      APD Regional Economic Outlook (REO) provides information on recent economic developments and prospects for countries in Asia and Pacific. Data for the REO for Asia and Pacific is prepared in conjunction with the semi-annual World Economic Outlook (WEO) exercises, spring and fall. Data are consistent with the projections underlying the WEO. REO aggregate data may differ from WEO aggregates due to differences in group membership. Composite data for country groups are weighted averages of data for individual countries. Arithmetic weighted averages are used for all concepts except for inflation and broad money, for which geometric averages are used. PPP GDP weights from the WEO database are used for the aggregation of real GDP growth, real non-oil GDP growth, real per capita GDP growth, investment, national savings, broad money, claims on the nonfinancial private sector, and real and nominal effective exchange rates. Aggregates for other concepts are weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates.
  • B
    • March 2019
      Source: World Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 20 March, 2019
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      Data cited at: The World Bank https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/ Topic: Jobs Publication: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/jobs License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/   The World Bank Jobs Statistics Over 150 indicators on labor-related topics, covering over 200 economies from 1990 to present.
  • C
    • April 2015
      Source: International Monetary Fund
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 20 August, 2015
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      Global growth is forecast at 3.5 percent in 2015 and 3.8 percent in 2016, with uneven prospects across the main countries and regions of the world. The distribution of risks to near-term global growth has become more balanced relative to the October World Economic Outlook but is still tilted to the downside. The decline in oil prices could boost activity more than expected. Geopolitical tensions continue to pose threats, and risks of disruptive shifts in asset prices remain relevant. In some advanced economies, protracted low inflation or deflation also pose risks to activity. The chapter takes a region-by-region look at the recent development in the world economy and the outlook for 2015, with particular attention to notable development in countries within each region.
    • March 2012
      Source: Knoema
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      Country Risk Assessment Database, 2012. Source: Multiple Sources - EuroStat, WB, IMF, OECD, UNCTAD
  • D
    • January 2018
      Source: The Fletcher School,Tufts University
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 30 August, 2018
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      The DEI 2017 is a data-driven holistic evaluation of the progress of the digital economy across 60 countries, combining more than 100 different indicators across four key drivers: Supply Conditions, Demand Conditions, Institutional Environment, and Innovation and Change. The resulting framework captures both the state and rate of digital evolution and identifies implications for investment, innovation, and policy priorities. DEI 2017 also highlights the evolving nature of the risks being created by our continuing reliance on digital technology. Towards this end, the study covers a key question of “digital trust.“ The DEI 2017 incorporates a newly devised analysis of digital trust that takes into account the trustworthiness of the digital environment for each country; the quality of users’ experience; attitudes towards key institutions and organizations; and users’ behavior when they interact with the digital world. This subject is of great interest to all participants in the digital economy, given the concerns about security of essential information, cyber-attacks, and consumers’ apprehensions—about the digital systems and their reliability, the digital companies and their growing dominance, and about the leaders of digital companies. The DEI framework segments the 60 countries into Stand Outs, Stall Outs, Break Outs and Watch Outs. Three countries are notable as standouts even within the Stand Out segment: Singapore, New Zealand, and the UAE. Each has a unique policy-led digital strategy and a narrative that may be considered by other nations as worthy of emulation or adoption. The Nordic countries and Switzerland are at the top of the DEI 2017 rankings. China, once again, tops the list of countries in terms of the pace of change in its digital evolution, or momentum.
  • E
    • September 2019
      Source: Fraser Institute
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 25 September, 2019
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      Data cited at: "Economic Freedom of the World: 2019 Annual Report"@Fraser Institute   The economic freedom index measures the degree of economic freedom present in five major areas: [1] Size of Government; [2] Legal System and Security of Property Rights; [3] Sound Money; [4] Freedom to Trade Internationally; [5] Regulation. Within the five major areas, there are 24 components (area) in economic freedom index. Each component and sub-component is placed on a scale from 0 to 10.
    • August 2011
      Source: Multiple Sources
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      A compilation of monthly closing stock indices for major stock exchanges across the World. This dataset is updated on a monthly basis.
  • F
  • G
    • October 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 06 October, 2019
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      National accounts are a coherent set of macroeconomic indicators, which provide an overall picture of the economic situation and are widely used for economic analysis and forecasting, policy design and policy making. The data presented in this collection are the results of a pilot exercise on the sharing selected main GDP aggregates, population and employment data collected by different international organisations. It wasconducted by the Task Force in International Data Collection (TFIDC) which was established by the  Inter-Agency Group on Economic and Financial Statistics (IAG).  The goal of this pilot is to develop a set of commonly shared principles and working arrangements for data cooperation that could be implemented by the international agencies. The data sets are an experimental exercise to present national accounts data form various countries across the globe in one coherent folder, but users should be aware that these data are collected and validated by different organisations and not fully harmonised from a methodological point of view.  The domain consists of the following collections:
    • October 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 06 October, 2019
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      National accounts are a coherent set of macroeconomic indicators, which provide an overall picture of the economic situation and are widely used for economic analysis and forecasting, policy design and policy making. The data presented in this collection are the results of a pilot exercise on the sharing selected main GDP aggregates, population and employment data collected by different international organisations. It wasconducted by the Task Force in International Data Collection (TFIDC) which was established by the  Inter-Agency Group on Economic and Financial Statistics (IAG).  The goal of this pilot is to develop a set of commonly shared principles and working arrangements for data cooperation that could be implemented by the international agencies. The data sets are an experimental exercise to present national accounts data form various countries across the globe in one coherent folder, but users should be aware that these data are collected and validated by different organisations and not fully harmonised from a methodological point of view.  The domain consists of the following collections:
    • October 2018
      Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 01 March, 2019
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      Project LINK is an international collaborative research group for econometric modelling, coordinated jointly by the Development Policy and Analysis Division of UN/DESA and the University of Toronto. Each year, a UN/DESA Expert Group Meeting on the World Economy, also known as the Project LINK Meeting, is held in October to discuss the world economic outlook. The meeting is participated in by a wide range of experts from academia, economic research institutions and international economic organizations as well as colleagues from the five regional commissions: Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA).
    • September 2019
      Source: Economic Policy Uncertainty
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 13 September, 2019
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      Data cited at: Economic Policy Uncertainty The Global Economic Policy Uncertainty (GEPU) Index is a GDP-weighted average of national EPU indices for 20 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, France, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
    • September 2018
      Source: Dual Citizen LLC
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 21 September, 2018
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      The performance index of the 2018 GGEI is defined by 20 underlying indicators, each contained within one of the four main dimensions of leadership & climate change, efficiency sectors, markets & investment and the environment.   For more detail on our approach to aggregating these diverse data sources to define the composite indicators in the GGEI and its four main dimensions, as well as our approach to data selection, weighting and other issues associated with creating an index, please visit the Methodology section.
    • December 2018
      Source: Knowledge4All
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 18 March, 2019
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      Data cited at: Knowledge4All,United Nations Development Programme & Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation.   Note-Full Version can be checked here: https://knoema.com/WLDKALLGKI2018Dec/global-knowledge-index The GKI is a partnership initiative between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation (MBRF), it was first announced during the Knowledge Summit in 2016. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the only index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The GKI is composed of six sectoral indices: 1) Pre - university education 2) Technical vocational education and training(TVET) 3) Higher education 4) Research, development and innovation(RDI) 5) Information and communications technology (ICT) 6) Economy in addition to a seventh supporting index on the General Enabling Environment. All values are normalized to a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
    • December 2018
      Source: Knowledge4All
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 18 March, 2019
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      Data cited at: Knowledge4All,United Nations Development Programme & Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation. The GKI is a partnership initiative between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Knowledge Foundation (MBRF), it was first announced during the Knowledge Summit in 2016. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The Global Knowledge Index (GKI) is the only index that measures knowledge on the global level, it highlights the strategic role of knowledge and the importance of developing objective and scientific tools to measure and evaluate it. The GKI aims at measuring knowledge as a broad concept that is intricately related to all aspects of modern human life, in a systematic approach that builds on solid conceptual and methodological principles. The GKI is composed of six sectoral indices: 1) Pre - university education 2) Technical vocational education and training(TVET) 3) Higher education 4) Research, development and innovation(RDI) 5) Information and communications technology (ICT) 6) Economy in addition to a seventh supporting index on the General Enabling Environment. All values are normalized to a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).   The Pre-University Education sector plays a central role in building the knowledge capital that represents the first input in preparing young people to acquire and produce knowledge. Pre-university education equips youth with scientific knowledge, as well as creative skills and capacities, to access lifelong learning opportunities. This sector is therefore key, as it constitutes the first basis for other sectors to build upon. It is composed of two pillars: knowledge capital and educational enabling environment. The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector represents the main connection between education and the labour market and provides educated young people with opportunities for professional integration. It contributes to the provision of high-skilled labour and the development of conducive working environments. It is composed of two pillars: formation and professional training and features of the labour market. The Higher Education sector is of high importance, as it is an active component in educating youth, developing their qualifications, and expanding their knowledge and skills, which results in the improvement of a country’s productivity and competitiveness in global markets. It is also considered among the most important factors that directly contribute to the advancement of scientific research and technological development. It is composed of two pillars: higher education inputs and higher education outputs and quality. Research, Development, and Innovation (RDI) contribute to increasing knowledge at the national and regional levels. RDI, which serves as a driver for economic growth and sustainable development in both developed and developing countries, is mainly based on the production of new or improved goods, services, production processes, and organizational models. RDI is closely linked to other sectors as it provides essential inputs to the entire system. It is composed of three pillars: research and development, innovation in production, and social innovation. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays an essential role in supporting the advancement of knowledge across all sectors. Advancements in knowledge-intensive production have become closely linked to the provision of advanced technology, especially as the Internet has increased the opportunities available to acquire knowledge. Therefore, it is essential for countries to employ indicators that quantify their levels of ICT development for the benefit of stakeholders in their societies. It is composed of two pillars: ICT inputs and ICT outputs. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays an essential role in supporting the advancement of knowledge across all sectors. Advancements in knowledge-intensive production have become closely linked to the provision of advanced technology, especially as the Internet has increased the opportunities available to acquire knowledge. Therefore, it is essential for countries to employ indicators that quantify their levels of ICT development for the benefit of stakeholders in their societies. It is composed of two pillars: ICT inputs and ICT outputs. The Knowledge Economy is the main driver of sustainable development, wealth creation, and job creation in various economic fields, across the industrial, agricultural, and service sectors. Unlike the traditional concept of economic resource analysis and availability, a knowledge economy is primarily based on providing economic resources, particularly human resources, with knowledge tools, including digital and technological knowledge assets, as well as innovative and creative skills. It is composed of three pillars: knowledge competitiveness, economic openness, and financing and value added. The General Enabling Environment was added to support the 6 sectoral indices, as these sectors do not operate in isolation from their surroundings, but rather in a space governed by a range of contextual factors – political, socioeconomic, health-related, and environmental. It is composed of three pillars: political and institutional, socio-economic, and health and environment.
    • May 2019
      Source: KPMG
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 28 June, 2019
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      Covers data on corporate, indirect and individual income tax rates throughout 163 countries across the world during the period from 2006 to 2019. Provided by KPMG.
    • January 2015
      Source: University of Groningen, Netherlands
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 25 February, 2016
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      The GGDC 10-Sector Database provides a long-run internationally comparable dataset on sectoral productivity performance in Asia, Europe, Latin America and the US. Variables covered in the data set are annual series of value added, output deflators, and persons employed for 10 broad sectors. It gives sectoral detail to the historical macro data in Maddison (2003) from 1950 onwards. It consists of series for 10 countries in Asia, 9 in Latin-America and 9 in Europe and the US. The data for Asia and Latin-America are based on Marcel P. Timmer and Gaaitzen J. de Vries (2007), 'A Cross-Country Database For Sectoral Employment And Productivity In Asia And Latin America, 1950-2005', GGDC Research memorandum GD-98, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, August 2007. Data for Europe and the US is based on an update of Bart van Ark (1996), Sectoral Growth Accounting and Structural Change in Post-War Europe, in B. van Ark and N.F.R. Crafts, eds., Quantitative Aspects of Post-War European Economic Growth, CEPR/Cambridge University Press, pp. 84-164. All series derived from this database need to be referred to as: "Timmer, Marcel P. and Gaaitzen J. de Vries (2009), "Structural Change and Growth Accelerations in Asia and Latin America: A New Sectoral Data Set" Cliometrica, vol 3 (issue 2) pp. 165-190."
  • H
  • I
    • July 2018
      Source: International Centre for Tax and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 May, 2019
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      Data cited at: ICTD/UNU-WIDER, ‘Government Revenue Dataset’, 2018, https://www.wider.unu.edu/project/government-revenue-dataset' ICTD Government Revenue Dataset, 2018 A major obstacle to cross-country research on the role of revenue and taxation in development has been the weakness of available data. Government Revenue Dataset (GRD), developed through the International Centre for Tax and Development (ICTD), is aimed at overcoming this obstacle. It meticulously combines data from several major international databases, as well as drawing on data compiled from all available International Monetary Fund (IMF) Article IV reports. It achieves marked improvements in data coverage and accuracy, including a standardized approach to revenue from natural resources, and holds the promise of significant improvement in the credibility and robustness of research in this area. Dataset contains Central, General and merged government revenue data reported as % of GDP.
    • April 2019
      Source: International Monetary Fund
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 11 April, 2019
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      The World Economic Outlook (WEO) database contains selected macroeconomic data series from the statistical appendix of the World Economic Outlook report, which presents the IMF staff's analysis and projections of economic developments at the global level, in major country groups and in many individual countries. The WEO is released in April and September/October each year. Use this database to find data on national accounts, inflation, unemployment rates, balance of payments, fiscal indicators, trade for countries and country groups (aggregates), and commodity prices whose data are reported by the IMF. Data are available from 1980 to the present, and projections are given for the next two years. Additionally, medium-term projections are available for selected indicators. For some countries, data are incomplete or unavailable for certain years. Changes to the April 2019 Database:  FYR Macedonia is now called North Macedonia. In February 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.    
    • February 2019
      Source: Heritage Foundation
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 February, 2019
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      Data cited at: Heritage Foundation   Economic freedom is the fundamental right of every human to control his or her own labor and property. In an economically free society, individuals are free to work, produce, consume, and invest in any way they please, with that freedom both protected by the state and unconstrained by the state. In economically free societies, governments allow labor, capital and goods to move freely, and refrain from coercion or constraint of liberty beyond the extent necessary to protect and maintain liberty itself. Economic Freedom Scores: Range and level of freedom 80–100:- Free 70–79.9:- Mostly Free 60–69.9:- Moderately Free 50–59.9:- Mostly Unfree 0–49.9:- Repressed
    • December 2018
      Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 December, 2018
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      The International Macroeconomic Data Set provides historical and projected data for 189 countries that account for more than 99 percent of the world economy. These macroeconomic data and projections are assembled explicitly to serve as underlying assumptions for the annually updated USDA agricultural supply and demand projections, which provide a 10-year outlook on U.S. and global agriculture. The macroeconomic projections describe the long-term scenario that is used as a benchmark for analyzing the impacts of alternative scenarios and macroeconomic shocks.  The projections assume there are no changes in policy and abstract from business cycle effects.  Historical data are available for real (inflation-adjusted) gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, population, and real exchange rates from 1969 to the most recent available year, and each variable is projected forward to 2030.
    • June 2013
      Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 July, 2013
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      Time series on international reserves (including gold), by individual country, expressed in millions of dollars. It further presents the number of months of merchandise imports that these reserves could finance at current imports level, as well as annual changes in total reserves.
  • N
    • December 2018
      Source: United Nations Statistics Division
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      The National Accounts Main Aggregates Database presents a series of analytical national accounts tables from 1970 onwards for more than 200 countries and areas of the world. It is the product of a global cooperation effort between the Economic Statistics Branch of the United Nations Statistics Division, international statistical agencies and the national statistical services of these countries and is developed in accordance with the recommendation of the Statistical Commission at its first session in 1947 that the Statistics Division should publish regularly the most recent available data on national accounts for as many countries and areas as possible. The database is updated in December of each year with newly available national accounts data for all countries and areas.
    • February 2019
      Source: The National Committee on North Korea
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 August, 2019
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  • P
    • February 2012
      Source: Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      Benchmark data used in the component price level estimates for past PWTs. The published record of benchmark comparisons includes regional and world comparisons. These are described through 1985 in publications of the World Bank, including the published comparisons of the Penn group. The Penn World Table provides purchasing power parity and national income accounts converted to international prices for 189 countries/territories for some or all of the years 1950-2010.  Its expenditure entries are denominated in a common set of prices in a common currency so that real quantity comparisons can be made, both between countries and over time. It also provides information about relative prices within and between countries, as well as demographic data and capital stock estimates. The Penn World Table grew out of the United Nations International Comparison Programme (ICP) that was jointly directed by Irving Kravis at Penn through the first three phases ending with 1975 comparison (Kravis, Heston and Summers, 1982). PWT 7.1 Alan Heston, Robert Summers and Bettina Aten, Penn World Table Version 7.1, Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania, Nov 2012.
    • April 2019
      Source: University of Groningen, Netherlands
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 May, 2019
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      PWT version 9.1 is a database with information on relative levels of income, output, input and productivity, covering 182 countries between 1950 and 2017.
    • October 2019
      Source: International Monetary Fund
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 10 October, 2019
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      The Principal Global Indicators (PGI) dataset provides internationally comparable data for the Group of 20 economies (G-20) and economies with systemically important financial sectors that are not members of the G-20. The PGI facilitates the monitoring of economic and financial developments for these jurisdictions. Launched in 2009, the PGI website is hosted by the IMF and is a joint undertaking of the Inter-Agency Group of Economic and Financial Statistics (IAG).
    • April 2015
      Source: International Monetary Fund
      Uploaded by: Shakthi Krishnan
      Accessed On: 13 August, 2015
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      Private fixed investment in advanced economies contracted sharply during the global financial crisis, and there has been little recovery since. Investment has generally slowed more gradually in the rest of the world. Although housing investment fell especially sharply during the crisis, business investment accounts for the bulk of the slump, and the overriding factor holding it back has been the overall weakness of economic activity. In some countries, other contributing factors include financial constraints and policy uncertainty. These findings suggest that addressing the general weakness in economic activity is crucial for restoring growth in private investment.
    • April 2019
      Source: Inter-American Development Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 June, 2019
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      Public Debt around the World
  • R
    • October 2015
      Source: International Monetary Fund
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 27 October, 2015
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      Global growth declined in the first half of 2015, reflecting a further slowdown in emerging markets and a weaker recovery in advanced economies. It is now projected at 3.1 percent for 2015 as a whole, slightly lower than in 2014, and 0.2 percentage point below the forecasts in the July 2015 World Economic Outlook (WEO) Update. Prospects across the main countries and regions remain uneven. Relative to last year, growth in advanced economies is expected to pick up slightly, while it is projected to decline in emerging market and developing economies. With declining commodity prices, depreciating emerging market currencies, and increasing financial market volatility, downside risks to the outlook have risen, particularly for emerging market and developing economies. Global activity is projected to gather some pace in 2016. In advanced economies, the modest recovery that started in 2014 is projected to strengthen further. In emerging market and developing economies, the outlook is projected to improve: in particular, growth in countries in economic distress in 2015 (including Brazil, Russia, and some countries in Latin America and in the Middle East), while remaining weak or negative, is projected to be higher next year, more than offsetting the expected gradual slowdown in China.
  • S
    • July 2017
      Source: Johannes Kepler University
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 March, 2019
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      Data cited at: Shadow Economies around the World: New Results for 158 Countries over 1991-2015 by Friedrisch SCHNEIDER. Working Paper No. 1710 July 2017   Abstract: This paper is a first attempt to estimate the size and development of the shadow economy of 158 countries over the period 1991 up to 2015. Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) method we apply for the first time (i) the light intensity approach instead of GDP avoiding the problem that quite often GDP is used as a cause and indicator variable, (ii) the Predictive Mean Matching (PMM) method, and (iii) a variety of robustness tests. Results suggest that the average size of the shadow economy of these 158 countries over 1991-2015 is 32.5% of official GDP, which was 34.82% in 1991 and decreased to 30.66% in 2015. The lowest size of the shadow economy East Asian countries with 16.77% averaged over the period 1991- 2015, then follows OECD countries with 18.7% and the highest value have Latin American and sub-Saharan African countries with values above 35%.
  • T
    • April 2019
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 April, 2019
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      Because of the limited availability of official statistics on national supply-use and input-output tables in recent years – reflecting the fact that these are only typically available at best two or three years after the reference period to which they refer – TiVA indicators for the most recent years, as displayed in this dataset, are estimated using now-casting techniques. The approach (described in more detail in the accompanying methodological note) in essence estimates national input-output tables by projecting relationships observed in the latest TiVA benchmark year (currently 2011) into nowcast years (currently 2012-2014) but constrained to official estimates of gross output and value-added by industry and national accounts main aggregates of demand and trade, and supplemented by bilateral trade statistics, all of which are available throughout the nowcast period. Importantly, the projections of relationships in 2011 into 2012 are determined using a volume approach, to account for possible distortions that might be introduced – by for example differential price movements in imports and domestic production – if projections were made using nominal relationships. These estimates are then reflated into current prices, and simultaneously balanced – consistent with official volume and current price estimates of trade, demand and activity – to arrive at a balanced national input-output table in 2012, in nominal terms as well as in prices of 2011. Estimates for 2013 and 2014 are calculated in the same manner but using, respectively, the 2012 and 2013 relationships as the starting point.
    • April 2019
      Source: Conference Board
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 July, 2019
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      Data cited at: https://www.conference-board.org This dataset contains time series data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Population, Employment, Total Hours Worked, Per Capita Income and Labor Productivity (measured as GDP per Person Employed and GDP per Hour Worked). Data is available for 123 countries, plus a second version of Chinese data based on alternative data, covering the period 1950-2018.
  • W
    • June 2018
      Source: World Economics and Politics (WEP) Dataverse
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 25 September, 2018
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      Data cited at: World Economics and Politics (WEP) Dataverse   World Economic and Politics dataverse- 1800 to 2017
    • October 2019
      Source: World Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 October, 2019
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      Data cited at: The World Bank https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/ Topic: Global Economic Monitor Publication: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/global-economic-monitor License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/   The dataset Provides daily updates of global economic developments, with coverage of high income- as well as developing countries. Average period data updates are provided for exchange rates, equity markets, interest rates, stripped bond spreads, and emerging market bond indices. Monthly data coverage (updated daily and populated upon availability) is provided for consumer prices, high-tech market indicators, industrial production and merchandise trade.
    • October 2019
      Source: World Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 16 October, 2019
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      The primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially-recognized international sources. It presents the most current and accurate global development data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates
    • March 2019
      Source: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Economic growth accelerated in more than half the world’s economies in both 2017 and 2018. Developed economies expanded at a steady pace of 2.2 per cent in both years, and growth rates in many countries have risen close to their potential, while unemployment rates in several developed economies have dropped to historical lows. Among the developing economies, the regions of East and South Asia remain on relatively strong growth trajectory, expanding by 5.8 per cent and 5.6 per cent, respectively in 2018. Many commodityexporting countries, notably fuel exporters, are continuing a gradual recovery, although they remain exposed to volatile prices. The impact of the sharp drop in commodity markets in 2014/15 also continues to weigh on fiscal and external balances and has left a legacy of higher levels of debt. Global economic growth remained steady at 3.1 per cent in 2018, as a fiscally induced acceleration in the United States of America offset slower growth in some other large economies. Economic activity at the global level is expected to expand at a solid pace of 3 per cent in 2019, but there are increasing signs that growth may have peaked. The growth in global industrial production and merchandise trade volumes has been tapering since the beginning of 2018, especially in trade-intensive capital and intermediate goods sectors. Leading indicators point to some softening in economic momentum in many countries in 2019, amid escalating trade disputes, risks of financial stress and volatility, and an undercurrent of geopolitical tensions. At the same time, several developed economies are facing capacity constraints, which may weigh on growth in the short term.
    • October 2019
      Source: Economic Policy Uncertainty
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 03 October, 2019
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      Data cited at: World Uncertainty Index (WUI), developed by Hites Ahir (International Monetary Fund), Nicholas Bloom (Stanford University) and Davide Furceri (International Monetary Fund).

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