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Johannes Kepler University

The JKU considers itself a strongly rooted, regional institution but at the same time, an internationally-oriented university propelling itself to become a leading European academic institution.

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  • S
    • January 2015
      Source: Johannes Kepler University
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 18 October, 2016
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      Data citation: Schneider, Friedrich & Schneider, Friedrich. (2013). Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2012: Some New Facts.  The calculation of the size and development of the shadow economy is done with the MIMIC (Multiple Indicators and Multiple Courses) estimation procedure. Using the MIMIC estimation procedure one gets only relative values and one needs other methods like the currency demand approach or the income discrepancy method, to calibrate the MIMIC values into absolute ones. The calculated values for 2014 are projections for some countries, for 2015 they are projections for all countries, based on the forecasts of the official figures (GDP, unemployment, etc.) of these countries.

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