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Since 2008, gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP has recorded a slight increase. In 2014, the value stood at 2.03% of GDP, compared with 1.85% in 2008. The increase between 2008 and 2009 during the economic crisis reflects a wider EU effort to stimulate economic growth by boosting public expenditure on R&D. In 2014, the EU was 0.97 percentage points below its target for 2020, which envisages increasing combined public and private R&D expenditure to reach 3% of GDP.