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Iceland

  • President:Guðni Th. Jóhannesson
  • Prime Minister:Katrín Jakobsdóttir
  • Capital city:Reykjavík
  • Languages:Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
  • Government
  • National statistics office
  • Population, persons:341,284 (2017)
  • Area, sq km:100,250 (2017)
  • GDP per capita, US$:70,057 (2017)
  • GDP, billion current US$:23.9 (2017)
  • GINI index:25.6 (2014)
  • Ease of Doing Business rank:23 (2017)
All datasets:  A C D E F G I L M N O P R S T U W
  • A
    • June 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 June, 2018
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      The gross nutrient balances (N and P) are calculated as the difference between the total quantity of nutrient inputs entering an agricultural system (mainly fertilisers, livestock manure), and the quantity of nutrient outputs leaving the system (mainly uptake of nutrients by crops and grassland). Gross nutrient balances are expressed in tonnes of nutrient surplus (when positive) or deficit (when negative). This calculation can be used as a proxy to reveal the status of environmental pressures, such as declining soil fertility in the case of a nutrient deficit, or for a nutrient surplus the risk of polluting soil, water and air. The nutrient balance indicator is also expressed in terms of kilogrammes of nutrient surplus per hectare of agricultural land to facilitate the comparison of the relative intensity of nutrients in agricultural systems between countries.
    • May 2013
      Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 24 February, 2019
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      This metadata refers to three datasets based on the data collection on air emissions accounts (AEA): 1.Air emissions accounts by NACE Rev. 2 activity [env_ac_ainah_r2] This data set reports the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants broken down by 64 industries (classified by NACE Rev. 2) plus households. Concepts and principles are the same as in national accounts. Complete data starts from reference year 2008. 2. Air emissions intensities by NACE Rev. 2 activity [env_ac_aeint_r2] This data set presents intensity-ratios relating AEA emissions (see previous) to economic parameters (value added, production output) for 64 industries (classified by NACE Rev. 2). 3. Air emissions accounts totals bridging to emission inventory totals [env_ac_aibrid_r2] This data set includes so-called bridging items showing the differences between the national totals as derived from two internationally established approaches/methods for reporting emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants: a) Air emissions accounts (AEA), i.e. the dataset mentioned above under 1. The AEA national totals refer to the residents of the reporting country (so-called residence principle as established in national accounts). b) National emission inventories, i.e. greenhouse gas inventories (providing emission data under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) and air pollutant inventories (providing emission data under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NEC). The national totals refer widely to the territory of the reporting country. The European Environment Agency (EEA) collects national inventories for greenhouse gases and other air pollutants and compiles the EU aggregates. Eurostat republishes the most relevant data from these inventories in [env_air_emis] and [env_air_gge]. The two methodologies are based on slightly different concepts and principles and the totals at national and EU level correspondingly differ. The bridging items explicitly present these differences.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 20 February, 2019
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      This metadata refers to three datasets based on the data collection on air emissions accounts (AEA): 1.Air emissions accounts by NACE Rev. 2 activity [env_ac_ainah_r2] This data set reports the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants broken down by 64 industries (classified by NACE Rev. 2) plus households. Concepts and principles are the same as in national accounts. Complete data starts from reference year 2008. 2. Air emissions intensities by NACE Rev. 2 activity [env_ac_aeint_r2] This data set presents intensity-ratios relating AEA emissions (see previous) to economic parameters (value added, production output) for 64 industries (classified by NACE Rev. 2). 3. Air emissions accounts totals bridging to emission inventory totals [env_ac_aibrid_r2] This data set includes so-called bridging items showing the differences between the national totals as derived from two internationally established approaches/methods for reporting emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants: a) Air emissions accounts (AEA), i.e. the dataset mentioned above under 1. The AEA national totals refer to the residents of the reporting country (so-called residence principle as established in national accounts). b) National emission inventories, i.e. greenhouse gas inventories (providing emission data under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) and air pollutant inventories (providing emission data under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NEC). The national totals refer widely to the territory of the reporting country. The European Environment Agency (EEA) collects national inventories for greenhouse gases and other air pollutants and compiles the EU aggregates. Eurostat republishes the most relevant data from these inventories in [env_air_emis] and [env_air_gge]. The two methodologies are based on slightly different concepts and principles and the totals at national and EU level correspondingly differ. The bridging items explicitly present these differences.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 24 February, 2019
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      This metadata refers to three datasets based on the data collection on air emissions accounts (AEA): 1.Air emissions accounts by NACE Rev. 2 activity [env_ac_ainah_r2] This data set reports the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants broken down by 64 industries (classified by NACE Rev. 2) plus households. Concepts and principles are the same as in national accounts. Complete data starts from reference year 2008. 2. Air emissions intensities by NACE Rev. 2 activity [env_ac_aeint_r2] This data set presents intensity-ratios relating AEA emissions (see previous) to economic parameters (value added, production output) for 64 industries (classified by NACE Rev. 2). 3. Air emissions accounts totals bridging to emission inventory totals [env_ac_aibrid_r2] This data set includes so-called bridging items showing the differences between the national totals as derived from two internationally established approaches/methods for reporting emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants: a) Air emissions accounts (AEA), i.e. the dataset mentioned above under 1. The AEA national totals refer to the residents of the reporting country (so-called residence principle as established in national accounts). b) National emission inventories, i.e. greenhouse gas inventories (providing emission data under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) and air pollutant inventories (providing emission data under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (NEC). The national totals refer widely to the territory of the reporting country. The European Environment Agency (EEA) collects national inventories for greenhouse gases and other air pollutants and compiles the EU aggregates. Eurostat republishes the most relevant data from these inventories in [env_air_emis] and [env_air_gge]. The two methodologies are based on slightly different concepts and principles and the totals at national and EU level correspondingly differ. The bridging items explicitly present these differences.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 11 February, 2019
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      The European Union (EU) as a party to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) reports annually its air pollution inventory for the year t-2 and within the area covered by its Member States. Under the Convention, parties are obliged to report emissions data for numerous air pollutants. This dataset includes data on 6 air pollutants: sulphur oxides (SOx), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), as reported to the European Environment Agency (EEA). The EU inventory is fully consistent with national air pollution inventories compiled by the EU Member States. Note that Eurostat is not the producer of these data, only re-publishes them.
  • C
    • October 2017
      Source: World Resources Institute
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 06 August, 2018
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      Data Citation: CAIT Climate Data Explorer. 2017. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at: http://cait.wri.org   CAIT data carries a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license   CAIT Historic allows for easy access, analysis and visualization of the latest available international greenhouse gas emissions data. It includes information for 186 countries, 50 U.S. states, 6 gases, multiple economic sectors, and 160 years - carbon dioxide emissions for 1850-2012 and multi-sector greenhouse gas emission for 1990-2012.
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Eurostat Dataset Id:cpc_enclimwa  The focus of this domain is on the following country groups:Acceeding country: Croatia (HR)Candidate countries: the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MK), Montenegro (ME), Iceland (IS), Serbia (RS) and Turkey (TR)Potential candidate countries: Albania (AL), Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA), as well as Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 (XK)
    • October 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 20 October, 2016
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      Eurostat Dataset Id:cpc_sienv  The focus of this domain is on the following country groups:Acceeding country: Croatia (HR)Candidate countries: the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MK), Montenegro (ME), Iceland (IS), Serbia (RS) and Turkey (TR)Potential candidate countries: Albania (AL), Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA), as well as Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 (XK)
    • March 2016
      Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 21 November, 2018
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      To view the original national data please open the questionnaires. Source: Joint Forest Europe / UNECE / FAO Questionnaire on Pan-European Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management. Country: Russian Federation The source of the data of Russian Federation is the National Report for the Joint Forest Europe / UNECE / FAO reporting on quantitative pan-European indicators 2011.
    • October 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 03 November, 2018
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      Indicator includes the overall losses from weather and climate-related disasters. It is based on data from the NatCatSERVICE managed by Munich Reinsurance Company. The NatCatSERVICE is a global database of natural catastrophe data around the world, collected since 1974.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
    • April 2017
      Source: State Statistical Office, Republic of North Macedonia
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 01 March, 2019
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      Source: State Statistical Office
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
  • D
    • March 2019
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 March, 2019
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      The objective of this dataset is to trace net changes in terms of volume in the growing stock of standing wood on forest land. It shows data underlying the indicator on the intensity of use of forest resources. This indicator relates actual fellings to annual productive capacity (i.e. gross increment). Forest depletion and growth describe balances or imbalances in different types of forests. The intensity of use of forest resources reflects various forest management methods and their sustainability. These data should be read in connection with other indicators of the OECD Core Set, in particular with indicators on land use changes and forest quality (species diversity, forest degradation), and be complemented with data on forest management practices and protection measures. In interpreting these data, it should be borne in mind that definitions and estimation methods vary among countries.
  • E
    • January 2010
      Source: European Commission
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      EU Energy in figures 2010, CO2 Emissions by Sector and from Transport by mode.
    • January 2010
      Source: European Commission
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      EU Energy in figures 2010, GHG Emissions by Sector and from Transport by mode.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 11 March, 2018
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      This indicator is defined as the number of Ecolabel or "EU Flower" licences in European countries. The Community Ecolabel is awarded to products and services with reduced environmental impacts. It is administered by the European Commission and receives the support of all EU Member States and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Ecolabel criteria are discussed in the European Union Ecolabelling Board (EUEB) whose membership includes representatives from industry, environmental protection groups, consumer organisations and representatives for SMEs.
    • December 2017
      Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from burning of biomass consist of methane and nitrous oxide gases from biomass combustion of forest land cover classes ‘Humid and Tropical Forest’ and ‘Other Forests’, and of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide gases from combustion of organic soils. The FAOSTAT emissions database is computed following Tier 1 IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol4.html). GHG emissions are provided by country, with global coverage, relative to the period 1990-present (with annual updates), expressed as Gg CH4, Gg N2O, Gg CO2, Gg CO2eq and Gg CO2eq from both CH4 and N2O, by land cover class (humid tropical forest, other forest, organic soils) and by aggregate (burning - all categories). Implied emission factors for N2O, CH4 and CO2 as well activity data (burned area and biomass burned) are also provided.
    • December 2017
      Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data from cropland are currently limited to emissions from cropland organic soils. They are those associated with carbon losses from drained histosols under cropland. The FAOSTAT emissions database is computed following Tier 1 IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol5.html). GHG emissions are provided by country, region and special groups, with global coverage, relative to the period 1990-present (with annual updates), expressed as net emissions/removal Gg CO2 and Gg CO2eq. Implied emission factor for C, net stock change Gg C and activity data (area) are also provided.
    • February 2016
      Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Annual net CO2 emission/removal from Forest Land consist of net carbon stock gain/loss in the living biomass pool (aboveground and belowground biomass) associated with Forest and Net Forest Conversion. The FAOSTAT emissions database is computed following Tier 1 IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html) and using area and carbon stocks data compiled by countries in the FAO Global Forest Resource Assessments (http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/en/). GHG emissions are provided by country, regions and special groups, with global coverage, relative to the period 1990-present (with annual updates), expressed as net stock change Gg C, net emissions/removals Gg CO2 and CO2eq, by forest or net forest conversion and by aggregate (forest land). Implied emission factor for CO2 as well as activity data (area, net area difference, total forest area and carbon stock in living biomass) are also given.
    • December 2017
      Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data from grassland are currently limited to emissions from grassland organic soils. They are those associated with carbon losses from drained histosols under grassland. The FAOSTAT emissions database is computed following Tier 1 IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol6.html). GHG emissions are provided by country, region and special groups, with global coverage, relative to the period 1990-present (with annual updates), expressed as net emissions/removal Gg CO2 and Gg CO2eq. Implied emission factor for C, net stock change Gg C and activity data (area) are also provided.
    • December 2017
      Source: Food and Agriculture Organization
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Land Use Total contains all GHG emissions and removals produced in the different Land Use sub-domains, representing the three IPCC Land Use categories: cropland, forest land, and grassland, collectively called emissions/removals from the Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU) sector. FOLU emissions consist of CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane) and N2O (nitrous oxide) associated with land management activities. CO2 emissions/removals are derived from estimated net carbon stock changes in above and below-ground biomass pools of forest land, including forest land converted to other land uses. CH4 and N2O, and additional CO2 emissions are estimated for fires and drainage of organic soils. The FAOSTAT emissions database is computed following Tier 1 IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National GHG Inventories (http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html). GHG emissions are provided as by country, regions and special groups, with global coverage, relative to the period 1990-present (with annual updates), expressed as Gg CO2eq from CH4 and N2O, net emissions/removals as GG CO2 and Gg CO2eq, by underlying land use emission sub-domain and by aggregate (land use total).
    • September 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      This dataset provides selected information on national emissions of traditional air pollutants: emission data are based upon the best available engineering estimates for a given period; they concern man-made emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Categories presented are based on the NFR 2014 classification. Data exclude non man-made emissions and international aviation and maritime transports emissions. For some countries residential mobile emissions (e.g. mowers) are included into Other combustion instead of Other mobile. The GDP used to calculate intensities is expressed in USD at 2010 prices and PPPs.  
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      This indicator tracks trends in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of ammonia by source sector.   The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdpc290's table: Eurobase > Tables by themes> Environment and Energy > Environment > Greenhouse gases / Air Pollution > Emissions of ammonia (NH3), by source sector(tsdpc290) tsdpc290's table within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable Development Indictors > Sustainable consumption and production > Resource use and waste >Emissions of ammonia (NH3), by source sector(tsdpc290)
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      This indicator tracks trends in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by source sector. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry; Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; and Other.   The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdpc270´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and energy > Environment > Greenhouse gases/Air polltuon > Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by source sector (tsdpc270) tsdpc270´s table within the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI) set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable development indicators > Sustainable consumption and production > Resources use and waste > Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by source sector (tsdpc270)
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      This indicator tracks trends in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of nitrogen oxides caused by transport. Separate values are available for emissions from road and from non-road transport.   The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdtr430´s table within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable Development Indicators > Sustainable Transport > Transport Impacts > Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from Transport (tsdtr430)
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) by source sector. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry; Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; Other.   The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdpc280´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and energy > Environment > Greenhouse gases/Air polltuon > Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) by source sector (tsdpc280) tsdpc280´s table within the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI) set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable development indicators > Sustainable consumption and production > Resources use and waste > Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) by source sector (tsdpc280)
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      This indicator tracks trends in atmospheric emissions of particulate matter caused by transport. PM2.5 refers to particulate matter with a diameter of up to 2.5 micrometres. Particulate matter potential for causing health problems is directly linked to the size of the particles.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      This indicator tracks trends in anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of sulphur oxides by source sector. The indicator also provides information on emissions by sectors: Energy production and distribution; Energy use in industry; Industrial processes; Road transport; Non-road transport; Commercial, institutional and households; Solvent and product use; Agriculture; Waste; Other.   The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdpc260´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and energy > Environment > Greenhouse gases/Air pollution > Emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) by source sector (tsdpc260) tsdpc260´s table within the Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI) set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable development indicators > Sustainable consumption and production > Resources use and waste >Emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) by source sector (tsdpc260)
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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    • April 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 11 April, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
    • February 2017
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 20 February, 2017
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    • January 2018
      Source: Environmental Performance Index
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 02 February, 2018
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      The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is constructed through the calculation and aggregation of 20 indicators reflecting national-level environmental data. These indicators are combined into nine issue categories, each of which fit under one of two overarching objectives. The two objectives that provide the overarching structure of the EPI are Environmental Health and Ecosystem Vitality. Environmental Health measures the protection of human health from environmental harm. Ecosystem Vitality measures ecosystem protection and resource management. These two objectives are further divided into nine issue categories that span high-priority environmental policy issues, including air quality, forests, fisheries, and climate and energy, among others. The issue categories are extensive but not comprehensive. Underlying the nine issue categories are 20 indicators calculated from country-level data and statistics. After more than 15 years of work on environmental performance measurement and six iterations of the EPI, global data are still lacking on a number of key environmental issues. These include: freshwater quality, toxic chemical exposures, municipal solid waste management, nuclear safety, wetlands loss, agricultural soil quality and degradation, recycling rates, adaptation, vulnerability, and resiliency to climate change, desertification.
    • June 2016
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 07 June, 2016
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      Unit of measure used Environmental protection (EP) includes all purposeful activities directly aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution or any other degradation of the environment resulting from production or consumption processes. The scope of Environmental Protection is defined according to the Classification of Environmental Protection Activities (CEPA), which distinguishes nine different environmental domains. Activities such as energy and material saving are only included to the extent that they mainly aim at environmental protection. An important example is recycling which is included only to the extent that it constitutes a substitute for waste management. Excluded are: (i) activities that, while beneficial to the environment, primarily satisfy technical needs or health and safety requirements for the protection of the workplace. (ii) expenditure linked to mobilisation of natural resources (e.g., water supply). (iii) calculated cost items such as depreciation (consumption of fixed capital) or the cost of capital as this questionnaire only records actual outlays. (iv) payments of interest, fines and penalties for non-compliance with environmental regulations or compensations to third parties etc., as they are not directly linked with an environmental protection activity. Environmental Protection Expenditure can be evaluated both according to the abater principle and the financing principle. This distinction makes it possible to aggregate different sectors and industries without double counting. Expenditure according to the abater principle (EXP I), includes all expenditure that the sector has for measures they themselves execute. Any economic benefits directly linked with the environmental protection activities (Receipts from by-products) are deducted in order to calculate the net amount of money spent by the sector for their own activities. The financing principle (EXP II) measures how much money a particular sector (directly) contributes to overall environmental protection activities, wherever they are executed. This means that the part of EXP I that was directly financed by others (through subsidies or revenues received) should be deducted, while the part of EXP I in other sectors that this sector finances directly (through subsidies or fees paid) should be added. The framework is based on double entry bookkeeping, where each activity and expenditure item has an abater (producer) and a financing side. This means that much expenditure by specialised producers is financed by the users of their services, mainly business sector and households. This will be recorded as Revenues for the Specialised producers (Table 4), and fees/purchases in Business and Households (Tables 2 and 3). Specialised producers include the production of environmental protection services by public and private corporations or quasi-corporations for the use of other units, mainly financed by the users of these services. These are mainly activities within ISIC Rev. 4/NACE Rev. 2 division and classes 37, 38.1, 38.2 and 39 such as: 37 Sewerage, 38.1 Waste collection, 38.2 Waste treatment and disposal, 39  Remediation activities and other waste management services. This sector is the sum of two components: a) Public specialised producers: All corporations and quasi-corporations that are subject to control by government units. Control is defined as the ability to determine general corporate policy by choosing appropriate directors, if necessary (Table 4A). b) Private specialised producers: All corporations and quasi-corporations that are not subject to control by government units (Table 4B). Specialised producers could also include for example the activities of e.g. volunteer environmental organisations or secondary environmental activities. These should be entered along with a footnote describing the coverage. CEPA domains: a column "pollution abatement and control" (PAC) has been kept in the questionnaire to ensure continuity with earlier data series.
    • April 2013
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 April, 2014
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      Eurostat Dataset Id:env_ac_exp4r2 Data show environmental protection expenditure (EPE). Environmental protection includes all activities directly aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution or any other degradation of the environment. Data on regional EPE were collected from the European countries for the first time in 2010 through the Eurostat Questionnaire on Regional Environmental Data Collection (REQ) based on a Gentlemen's Agreement. The scope of environmental protection is defined according to the Classification of Environmental Protection Activities (CEPA 2000), which distinguishes nine environmental domains: protection of ambient air and climate; wastewater management; waste management; protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water; noise and vibration abatement; protection of biodiversity and landscape; protection against radiation; research and development and other environmental protection activities. The data cover three economic sectors (public sector, specialised producers and industry), one economic variable (total environmental protection expenditure) and the nine environmental domains mentioned above. Data are published for years 2000-2009.
    • April 2015
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 December, 2015
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      Data show environmental protection expenditure (EPE). Environmental protection includes all activities directly aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution or any other degradation of the environment. Data on expenditure encompasses different types of investment and current expenditure by several sectors and detail by economic activity (see details in sections 3.2 to 3.4 below).
    • April 2015
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 16 December, 2015
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    • June 2017
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 08 July, 2017
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      This table provides a breakdown of expenditure of general government by type of transaction for the economic function 05 - Environmental protection. It represents a small part of a bigger table (General government expenditure by function (COFOG) - labelled ‘gov_a_exp’) that is compiled in the government finance statistics. The indicators are as reported under table 11 'Expenditure of general government by function (COFOG)' of the ESA transmission programme. The main data source is the national authorities. Data are presented in millions of euro, millions of national currency units and percentages of GDP. For further details please see the link below:   http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/metadata/en/gov_a_exp_esms.htm
    • October 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 03 November, 2018
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      Environmental protection expenditure is the money spent on all purposeful activities directly aimed at the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution or any other degradation of the environment. It includes environmental investments, environmental current expenditure and environmental subsidies/transfers. Environmental investments are all outlays in a given year for machinery, equipment and land used for environmental protection purposes. Current expenditure for environmental protection includes daily operating activities aiming at the prevention or reduction of pollution. It includes for example expenditure for staff working on environmental issues and materials for environmental protection.
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 18 March, 2019
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      Definition of an environmental tax (Regulation (EU) N° 691/2011) An environmental tax is a tax whose tax base is a physical unit (or a proxy of a physical unit) of something that has a proven, specific negative impact on the environment, and which is identified in ESA 2010 as a tax. The data collection for environmental tax revenue is derived from the national tax lists (NTLs) which Eurostat collects as a complement of table 9 which is part of the ESA 2010 (European system of accounts) transmission programme. The ESA 2010 transmission programme has been defined in annex B of the Regulation (EU) N° 549/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 21 May 2013. This data collection involves a functional analysis of each tax listed in the national accounts of European countries including: - assigning an economic function to each tax; - Attributing an environmental code to the environmental taxes (E for Energy, T for Transport, P for Pollution, RS for Resource). These function and environmental codes are reported by countries in their NTL and are validated by Eurostat. Eurostat also collects data on environmental taxes by economic activities (of the tax payers) using the NACE classification, taxes by households and non-residents (see http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=env_ac_taxind2&lang=en). The totals of environmental tax revenues from both collections should be made fully coherent.
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 18 March, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • July 2016
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 29 August, 2017
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      EAMFP growth measures the residual growth in the joint production of both the desirable and the undesirable outputs that cannot be explained by changes in the consumption of factor inputs (including labour, produced capital and natural capital). Therefore, for a given growth of input use, EAMFP increases when GDP increases or when pollution decreases. As part of the growth accounting framework underlying the EAMFP indicator, the growth contribution of natural capital and growth adjustment for pollution abatement indicators are derived: Growth contribution of natural capital - measures to what extent a country's growth in output is attributable to natural resource use; Growth adjustment for pollution abatement - measures to what extent a country's GDP growth should be corrected for pollution abatement efforts - adding what has been undervalued due to resources being diverted to pollution abatement, or deducing the ‘excess' growth which is generated at the expense of environmental quality.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 19 February, 2019
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      The indicator shows the population-weighted concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 to which the urban population is potentially exposed. Fine and coarse particulates (PM10) are those whose diameter is less than 10 micrometres, whilst fine particulates (PM2.5) are those whose diameters are less than 2.5 micrometers. Particulates can be carried deep into the lungs where they can cause inflammation and a worsening of the condition of people with heart and lung diseases. The smaller the particles the deeper they travel into the lungs, with more potential for harm. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) the annual mean concentration is the best indicator for PM-related health effects. In 1996, the Environment Council adopted Framework Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. The first Daughter Directive (1999/30/EC) relating to limit values for PM10 and other pollutants in ambient air fixed an annual limit value of 40 micrograms of PM10 per cubic meter (40 µg/m3). Note that the WHO guideline value is 20 µg/m3 (annual mean). More recently, the Directive 2008/50/EC set a framework to define and establish objectives for ambient air quality and to harmonise methods and criteria among the Member States. This does have limits for PM2.5. The limit value that was due to be met on 1 January 2015 is 25 µg/m3, which falls to 20 µg/m3 by 2020. Note that the WHO guideline value is 10 µg/m3 (annual mean). The directive 2008/50/EC also places a requirement on Member States to assess and reduce population exposure to concentrations of PM2.5 by 2020. The magnitude of the required reduction depends on national average concentrations between 2009 and 2011. Where concentrations for those years were greater than 22 µg/m3, all appropriate measures should be used to reduce below 18 µg/m3 by 2020.
    • November 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 November, 2018
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      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. The underlying PM2.5 concentrations estimates are taken from van Donkelaar et al. (2016). They have been derived using satellite observations and a chemical transport model, calibrated to global ground-based measurements using Geographically Weighted Regression at 0.01° resolution. The underlying population data, Gridded Population of the World, version 4 (GPWv4) are taken from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the NASA. The underlying boundary geometries are taken from the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) developed by the FAO, and the OECD Territorial Classification, when available. The current version of the database presents much more variation with respect to the previous one. The reason is that the underlying concentration estimates previously included smoothed multi-year averages and interpolations; while in the current version annual concentration estimates are used. Establishing trends of pollution exposure should be done with care, especially at smaller output areas, as their inputs (e.g. underlying data and models) can change from year to year. We recommend using a 3-year moving average for visualisation.
    • November 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 November, 2018
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      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. The underlying PM2.5 concentrations estimates are taken from van Donkelaar et al. (2016). They have been derived using satellite observations and a chemical transport model, calibrated to global ground-based measurements using Geographically Weighted Regression at 0.01° resolution. The underlying population data, Gridded Population of the World, version 4 (GPWv4) are taken from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) at the NASA. The underlying boundary geometries are taken from the Global Administrative Unit Layers (GAUL) developed by the FAO, and the OECD Territorial Classification, when available. The current version of the database presents much more variation with respect to the previous one. The reason is that the underlying concentration estimates previously included smoothed multi-year averages and interpolations; while in the current version annual concentration estimates are used. Establishing trends of pollution exposure should be done with care, especially at smaller output areas, as their inputs (e.g. underlying data and models) can change from year to year. We recommend using a 3-year moving average for visualization.
  • F
    • November 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 16 November, 2018
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      OECD Factbook provides a global overview of today's major economic, social and environmental indicators which cover a wide range of areas: agriculture, economic production, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health, industry, information and communications, international trade, labor force, population, taxation, public expenditure and R&D. More countries than ever are covered in greater detail, enabling direct comparisons for many indicators between OECD Members and Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russian Federation and South Africa.
    • July 2014
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 30 August, 2017
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      The OECD food waste dataset is a compilation of available data related to food loss and food waste for 32 countries. The period covered may vary across different countries depending on data availability (globally ranging from 1993 to 2013). Several types of sources have been used: international organisations, government and national statistic institutes, OECD delegations, academic studies and private sector or>>/governmental analytical reports. When available, detailed information on sources is provided in the "variable def. and sources" (eg. references to an academic article or a government website).
    • December 2016
      Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 May, 2017
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      World and National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring. Source: Tom Boden, Gregg Marland and Bob Andres (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
    • November 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 November, 2018
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
    • November 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 November, 2018
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
  • G
    • February 2017
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 November, 2017
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      Netherlands) Non-point sources include diffuse emissions from: a) road, rail and water transport, b) corrosion processes, c) run-off and drainage from agricultural soils, d) atmospheric deposition (excluding deposition on marine waters), e) urban run-off to sewers systems. Direct discharges from non-point sources: sum of direct discharges from diffuse sources and transfers like drainage and run-off from soils and direct atmospheric deposition at fresh surface waters (only N, Cu and Zn). Total discharges to the sea include atmospheric deposition at marine surface water. In most cases atmospheric deposition is the larger part of the total load to marine waters Sweden) Industrial wastewater, total discharged only includes industrial wastewater treatment plants with a permit in the national register for environmental reports and industries with own treatment and release to water. Excluded are industrial wastewater treatment plants that transfer water to urban wastewater treatment plants
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 29 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      Total amount of waste generated by households and businesses by economic activity according to NACE Rev. 2 and year.
    • September 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 October, 2016
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      Total amount of waste generated by households and businesses by economic activity according to NACE Rev. 2 and hazardousness.
    • September 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 October, 2016
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      Waste generated by households (EP-HH) and by waste category (EWC-Stat 4) and hazardousness, latest available year.
    • March 2019
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 19 March, 2019
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      This dataset shows data provided by Member countries' authorities through the questionnaire on the state of the environment (OECD/Eurostat), and to Eurostat through the Waste Statistics Regulation. They were updated or revised on the basis of data from other national and international sources available to the OECD Secretariat, and on the basis of comments received from national Delegates. Selected updates were also done in the context of the OECD Environmental Performance Reviews. The data are harmonised through the work of the OECD Working Party on Environmental Information (WPEI) and benefit from continued data quality efforts in OECD member countries, the OECD itself and other international organisations. In many countries systematic collection of environmental data has a short history; sources are typically spread across a range of agencies and levels of government, and information is often collected for other purposes. When interpreting these data, one should keep in mind that definitions and measurement methods vary among countries, and that inter-country comparisons require careful interpretation. One should also note that data presented here refer to national level and may conceal major subnational differences.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      Total amount of waste generated by households and businesses, by waste category (EWC-Stat 4) and year.
    • September 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 October, 2016
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      Total amount of waste generated by households and businesses, by waste category (EWC-Stat 4) and hazardousness, latest available year.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 March, 2019
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      On the basis of the Regulation on waste statistics (EC) No. 2150/2002, amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 849/2010, data on the generation and treatment of waste is collected from the Member States. The information on waste generation has a breakdown in sources (19 business activities according to the NACE classification and household activities) and in waste categories (according to the European Waste Classification for statistical purposes). The information on waste treatment is broken down to five treatment types (recovery, incineration with energy recovery, other incineration, disposal on land and land treatment) and in waste categories. All values are measured in tonnes of waste and in kg per capita, based on the annual average of the population. The Member States are free to decide on the data collection methods. The general options are: surveys, administrative sources, statistical estimations or some combination of methods. For the first reference year 2004 Member States could apply for permission not to deliver part of the information: waste generated by agriculture and fishing and waste generated in the services sector. For this reason this information is missing for some of the countries. Previously data on waste was collected on a voluntary basis with the joint OECD/Eurostat questionnaire on waste.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      This indicator is defined as all waste generated in a country per inhabitant and year, excluding major mineral wastes, dredging spoils and contaminated soils. This exclusion enhances comparability across countries as mineral waste accounts for high quantities in some countries and economic activities such as mining and construction.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 29 March, 2018
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      18.1. Source data
    • April 2018
      Source: United Nations Statistics Division
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 21 November, 2018
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      Environmental Indicators disseminate global environment statistics on ten indicator themes compiled from a wide range of data sources. The themes and indicator tables were selected based on the current demands for international environmental statistics and the availability of internationally comparable data. Indicator tables, charts and maps with relatively good quality and coverage across countries, as well as links to other international sources, are provided under each theme. Statistics on Water and Waste are based on official statistics supplied by national statistical offices and/or ministries of environment (or equivalent institutions) in response to the biennial UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire on Environment Statistics, complemented with comparable statistics from OECD and Eurostat, and water resources data from FAO Aqua stat. Statistics on other themes were compiled by UNSD from other international sources. In a few cases, UNSD has made some calculations in order to derive the indicators. However, generally no adjustments have been made to the values received from the source. UNSD is not responsible for the quality, completeness/availability, and validity of the data. Environment statistics is still in an early stage of development in many countries, and data are often sparse. The indicators selected here are those of relatively good quality and geographic coverage. Information on data quality and comparability is given at the end of each table together with other important metadata.
    • November 2018
      Source: Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 14 February, 2019
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      Direct greenhouse gases: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-23, 32, 125, 134a, 143a, 152a, 227ea, 236fa, 245fa, 365mfc, 43-10-mee), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs: CF4, C2F6, C3F8, c-C4F8, C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Nitrogen Trifluoride (NF3) and Sulfuryl Fluoride (SO2F2). Emissions are calculated by individual countries using country-specific information. The countries are organized in different world regions for illustration purposes. Emissions of some small countries are presented together with other countries depending on country definition and availability of activity statistics. Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.
    • September 2018
      Source: Dual Citizen LLC
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 21 September, 2018
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      The performance index of the 2018 GGEI is defined by 20 underlying indicators, each contained within one of the four main dimensions of leadership & climate change, efficiency sectors, markets & investment and the environment.   For more detail on our approach to aggregating these diverse data sources to define the composite indicators in the GGEI and its four main dimensions, as well as our approach to data selection, weighting and other issues associated with creating an index, please visit the Methodology section.
    • October 2017
      Source: Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 10 January, 2018
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      Emissions are calculated for the following substances: 1) Direct greenhouse gases: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-23, 32, 125, 134a, 143a, 152a, 227ea, 236fa, 245fa, 365mfc, 43-10-mee), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs: CF4, C2F6, C3F8, c-C4F8, C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Nitrogen Trifluoride (NF3) and Sulfuryl Fluoride (SO2F2); 2) Ozone precursor gases: Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC) and Methane (CH4). 3) Acidifying gases: Ammonia (NH3), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2). 4) Primary particulates: Fine Particulate Matter (PM10) - Carbonaceous speciation (BC , OC) is under progress. 5) Stratospheric Ozone Depleting Substances: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, 12, 113, 114, 115), Halons (1211, 1301, 2402), Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-22, 124, 141b, 142b), Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4), Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) and Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl2). Emissions (EM) for a country C are calculated for each compound x on an annual basis (y) and sector wise (for i sectors, multiplying on the one hand the country-specific activity data (AD), quantifying the human activity for each of the i sectors, with the mix of j technologies (TECH) for each sector i, and with their abatement percentage by one of the k end-of-pipe (EOP) measures for each technology j, and on the other hand the country-specific emission factor (EF) for each sector i and technology j with relative reduction (RED) of the uncontrolled emission by installed abatement measure k. Emissions in are calculated by individual countries using country-specific information. The countries are organized in different world regions for illustration purposes. Emissions of some small countries are presented together with other countries depending on country definition and availability of activity statistics.
    • June 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 27 July, 2018
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      This dataset contains selected indicators for monitoring progress towards green growth to support policy making and inform the public at large. The indicator bring together the OECD's statistics, indicators and measures of progress. The dataset covers OECD countries as well as BRIICS economies (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa), and selected countries when possible. The indicators are selected according to well specified criteria and embedded in a conceptual framework, which is structured around four groups to capture the main features of green growth: Environmental and resource productivity, to indicate whether economic growth is becoming greener with more efficient use of natural capital and to capture aspects of production which are rarely quantified in economic models and accounting frameworks; The natural asset base, to indicate the risks to growth from a declining natural asset base; Environmental quality of life, to indicate how environmental conditions affect the quality of life and wellbeing of people; Economic opportunities and policy responses, to indicate the effectiveness ofpolicies in delivering green growth and describe the societal responses needed to secure business and employment opportunities.
    • December 2018
      Source: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 13 March, 2019
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      In accordance with Articles 4 and 12 of the Climate Change Convention, and the relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, countries that are Parties to the Convention submit national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories to the Climate Change secretariat. These submissions are made in accordance with the reporting requirements adopted under the Convention, such as The UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines on Annex I Inventories (document FCCC/SBSTA/2004/8) for Annex I Parties and Guidelines for the preparation of national communications for non-Annex I Parites (decision 17/CP.8). The inventory data are provided in the annual GHG inventory submissions by Annex I Parties and in the national communications under the Convention by non-Annex I Parties. The GHG data reported by Parties contain estimates for direct greenhouse gases, such as: CO2 - Carbon dioxide CH4 - Methane N2O - Nitrous oxide PFCs - Perfluorocarbons HFCs - Hydrofluorocarbons SF6 - Sulphur hexafluoride as well as for the indirect greenhouse gases such as SO2, NOx, CO and NMVOC.
    • September 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 14 September, 2018
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      This dataset presents trends in man-made emissions of major greenhouse gases and emissions by gas. Data refer to total emissions of CO2 (emissions from energy use and industrial processes, e.g. cement production), CH4 (methane emissions from solid waste, livestock, mining of hard coal and lignite, rice paddies, agriculture and leaks from natural gas pipelines), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). Data exclude indirect CO2.   Intensities (per unit of GDP and per capita) as well as index are calculated on gross direct emissions excluding emissions or removals from land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF).   The GDP used to calculate intensities is expressed in USD at 2010 prices and PPPs.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 29 March, 2018
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      18.1. Source data
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      The indicator shows the greenhouse gas emissions of key source categories. A key source category is defined as an emission source category that has a significant influence on a country´s greenhouse gas inventory in terms of the absolute level of emissions, the trend in emissions, or both. The different greenhouse gases are weighted by their global warming potential, and the results are expressed in CO2 equivalents. The European Union (EU) as a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports annually its greenhouse gas inventory for the year t-2 and within the area covered by its Member States. The inventory also constitutes the EU-15 submission under the Kyoto Protocol. The EU greenhouse gas inventory is the most relevant and accurate source of information on greenhouse gas emissions in the EU, and serves to monitor all anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. The inventory contains data on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The EU inventory is fully consistent with national greenhouse gas inventories compiled by the EU Member States.   The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdcc210´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and energy > Environment > Greenhouse Gases/Air Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions by sector (tsdcc210) tsdcc210´s table within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable Development indicators > Climate change and energy > Climate change > Greenhouse gas emissions by sector (tsdcc210)
    • December 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 10 December, 2016
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      This dataset includes data on greenhouse gas emissions inventory, as reported to the European Environment Agency (EEA). Note that Eurostat is not the producer of these data, only re-publishes them. Within the context of emission inventories prepared for annual reporting in relation to the Kyoto Protocol, the measurement of greenhouse gases are confined to anthropogenic (human-induced) emissions that occur on managed lands. Aggregated greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural practices are primarily in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O) resulting from manure management and from the application of fertilisers and manure to soils, or in the form of methane (CH4) that results, among others, from livestock emissions, stored animal manure, or (to a lesser degree) rice cultivation. In contrast there are relatively low levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from agriculture practices. Enteric fermentation is a natural part of the digestive process for many ruminant animals where anaerobic microbes, decompose and ferment food in the rumen (a special stomach), that are then absorbed by the ruminant.  Because this digestion process is not 100 percent efficient, some of the food energy is lost in the form of methane. Measures to mitigate enteric fermentation would not only reduce emissions, they may also raise animal productivity by increasing digestive efficiency. Nitrous oxide is produced during the manure management and in soils through the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification is the aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, and denitrification is the anaerobic microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas (N2). The indicator is expressed in CO2-equivalents, as different greenhouse gases have different global warming potential. All greenhouse gases have what is called a Global Warming Potential (GWP). This value is used to compare the abilities of different greenhouse gases to trap heat in the atmosphere. GWPs are based on the heat-absorbing ability of each gas relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as the decay rate of each gas (the amount removed from the atmosphere over a given number of years). For instance, methane is a significant contributor to the greenhouse effect and has a GWP of 21. This means methane is approximately 21 times more heat-absorptive than carbon dioxide per unit of weight. Nitrous oxide is even 310 times more heat-absorptive than carbon dioxide per unit of weight. Greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion in agriculture (e.g. related to the use of farm machinery) and those attributed to land use, land use change and forestry are not included here.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      The greenhouse gas intensity of energy consumption is the ratio between energy-related greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and gross inland energy consumption.
    • December 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 09 December, 2016
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      The indicator shows trends in total man-made emissions of the "Kyoto basket" of greenhouse gases. It presents annual total emissions in relation to "Kyoto base year". In general the base year is 1990 for the non-fluorinated gases and 1995 for the fluorinated gases. The "Kyoto basket" of greenhouse gases includes: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the so-called F-gases (hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)). These gases are aggregated into a single unit using gas-specific global warming potential (GWP) factors. The aggregated greenhouse gas emissions are expressed in units of CO2 equivalents. The European Union (EU) as a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports annually its greenhouse gas inventory for the year t-2 and within the area covered by its Member States. The inventory also constitutes the EU-15 submission under the Kyoto Protocol. The EU greenhouse gas inventory is the most relevant and accurate source of information on greenhouse gas emissions in the EU, and serves to monitor all anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. The inventory contains data on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The EU inventory is fully consistent with national greenhouse gas inventories compiled by the EU Member States. The indicator is published by Eurostat based on data from the European Environment Agency (EEA). The indicator is Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI) set (tsdcc100), as it has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. It is also a Resource Efficiency Indicator (t2020_30) as it has been chosen as a dashboard indicator presented in the Resource Efficiency Scoreboard for the assessment of progress towards the objectives and targets of the Europe 2020 flagship initiative on Resource Efficiency. The indicator tsdcc100 has two tables: one with the index year 1990 and a second one indexed to Kyoto base year. tsdcc100´s tables within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Sustainable Development indicators > Climate change and energy > Greenhouse gas emissions (tsdcc100) (2 tables). t2020_30´s table within the Europe 2020 indicators set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Europe 2020 indicators > Climate change and energy > Greenhouse gas emissions (t2020_30).
    • June 2018
      Source: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 25 October, 2018
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  • I
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 18 March, 2019
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      This indicator is defined as the ratio between energy tax revenues and final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. Energy tax revenues are measured in euro (deflated) and the final energy consumption as toe (tonnes of oil equivalent)
    • December 2017
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 December, 2017
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      The Community Innovation Survey (CIS) is a survey about innovation activities in enterprises. The survey is designed to provide information on the innovativeness of sectors by type of enterprises, on the different types of innovation and on various aspects of the development of an innovation, such as objectives, sources of information, public funding or expenditures. The CIS provides statistics broken down by countries, types of innovators, economic activities and size classes. The survey is currently carried out every two years across the European Union, EFTA countries and EU candidate countries. In order to ensure comparability across countries, Eurostat together with the countries developed a standard core questionnaire (see in Annex) accompanied by a set of definitions and methodological recommendations. CIS 2014 concepts and its underlying methodology are also based on the Oslo Manual (2005) 3rd edition (see link at the bottom of the page). CIS 2014 results were collected under Commission Regulation No 995/2012. This Regulation defines the mandatory target population of the survey referring to enterprises in the Core NACE categories (see section 3.3.) with at least 10 employees. Further activities may be covered on a voluntary basis in national datasets. Most statistics are based on the 3-year reference period 2012-2014, but some use only one calendar year (2012 or 2014). CIS 2014 includes an ad-hoc module on innovations with environmental benefits. While European innovation statistics use aggregated national data, the microdata sets can be consulted by researchers via the SAFE Centre of Eurostat in Luxembourg or via CD-ROM releases in a more anonymised form; some countries also provide access to their microdata through national Safe Centres. Since the provision of microdata is voluntary, microdatasets do not cover all countries.
    • November 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 November, 2018
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      These data are part of a larger database, hosted on a different website, which includes both quantitative and qualitative data, as well as graphs.
    • January 2010
      Source: International Transport Forum
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Select Dataset
      These tables contain detailed data on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion in member countries of the International Transport Forum and member countries of OECD. Data on greenhouse gas emissions (and CO2 emissions in particular) come from national reports to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and from the International Energy Agency (IEA). UNFCCC and IEA emissions data are based on the default methods and emissions factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. CO2 emissions from international aviation and international maritime transport are included in national totals allocated on the basis of fuel sales. There is, however, no internationally agreed allocation methodology for these sectors as of yet.
  • L
    • March 2019
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 05 March, 2019
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      Land resources are one of the four components of the natural environment: water, air, land and living resources. In this context land is both: a physical "milieu" necessary for the development of natural vegetation as well as cultivated vegetation; a resource for human activities. The data presented here give information concerning land use state and changes (e.g. agricultural land, forest land). Land area excludes area under inland water bodies (i.e. major rivers and lakes). Arable refers to all lan generally under rotation, whether for temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted only once) or meadows, or left fallow (less than five years). These data are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable. Permanent crops are those that occupy land for a long period and do not have to be planted for several years after each harvest (e.g. cocoa, coffee, rubber). Land under vines and trees and shrubs producing fruits, nuts and flowers, such as roses and jasmine, is so classified, as are nurseries (except those for forest trees, which should be classified under "forests and other wooded land"). Arable and permanent crop land is defined as the sum of arable area and land under permanent crops. Permanent meadows and pastures refer to land used for five years or more to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land). Forest refers to land spanning more than 0.5 hectare (0.005 km2) and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. This includes land from which forests have been cleared but that will be reforested in the foreseeable future. This excludes woodland or forest predominantly under agricultural or urban land use and used only for recreation purposes. Other areas include built-up and related land, wet open land, and dry open land, with or without vegetation cover. Areas under inland water bodies (rivers and lakes) are excluded. The definitions used in different countries may show variations.
  • M
    • March 2019
      Source: World Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 20 March, 2019
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      Data cited at: The World Bank https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/ Topic: Millennium Development Goals Publication: https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/millennium-development-goals License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/   Relevant indicators drawn from the World Development Indicators, reorganized according to the goals and targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs focus the efforts of the world community on achieving significant, measurable improvements in people's lives by the year 2015: they establish targets and yardsticks for measuring development results. Gender Parity Index (GPI)= Value of indicator for Girls/ Value of indicator for Boys. For e.g GPI=School enrolment for Girls/School enrolment for Boys. A value of less than one indicates differences in favor of boys, whereas a value near one (1) indicates that parity has been more or less achieved. The greater the deviation from 1 greater the disparity is.
    • December 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 11 December, 2018
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      Air pollution is considered one of the most pressing environmental and health issues across OECD countries and beyond. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground-level ozone (O3) have potentially the most significant adverse effects on health compared to other pollutants. PM2.5 can be inhaled and cause serious health problems including both respiratory and cardiovascular disease, having its most severe effects on children and elderly people. Exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to considerably increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in particular. For these reasons, population exposure to (outdoor or ambient) PM2.5 has been identified as an OECD Green Growth headline indicator. Exposure to ground-level ozone (O3) has serious consequences for human health, contributing to, or triggering, respiratory diseases. These include breathing problems, asthma and reduced lung function (WHO, 2016; Brauer et al., 2016). Ozone exposure is highest in emission-dense countries with warm and sunny summers. The most important determinants are background atmospheric chemistry, climate, anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors such as volatile organic compounds, and the ratios between different emitted chemicals.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      Municipal waste is mainly produced by households, similar wastes from sources such as commerce, offices and public institutions are included. The amount of municipal waste generated consists of waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed of through the waste management system. The amount of municipal waste treatment is reported for the treatment operations incineration (with and without energy recovery), recycling, composting and landfilling. Data are available in thousand tonnes and kilograms per person. Wastes from agriculture and from industries are not included. For further detail on the definition please refer to section 3.4. The Sustainable Development Indicator on municipal waste is expressed in kilograms per person.
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 17 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
    • March 2019
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 19 March, 2019
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      This dataset shows data provided by Member countries' authorities through the questionnaire on the state of the environment (OECD/Eurostat). They were updated or revised on the basis of data from other national and international sources available to the OECD Secretariat, and on the basis of comments received from national Delegates. Selected updates were also done in the context of the OECD Environmental Performance Reviews. The data are harmonised through the work of the OECD Working Party on Environmental Information (WPEI) and benefit from continued data quality efforts in OECD member countries, the OECD itself and other international organisations. In many countries systematic collection of environmental data has a short history; sources are typically spread across a range of agencies and levels of government, and information is often collected for other purposes. When interpreting these data, one should keep in mind that definitions and measurement methods vary among countries, and that inter-country comparisons require careful interpretation. One should also note that data presented here refer to national level and may conceal major subnational differences. This dataset presents trends in amounts of municipal (including household waste), and the treatment and disposal method used. The amount of waste generated in each country is related to the rate of urbanisation, the types and pattern of consumption, household revenue and lifestyles.
  • N
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      On the basis of the Regulation on waste statistics (EC) No. 2150/2002, amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 849/2010, data on the generation and treatment of waste is collected from the Member States. The information on waste generation has a breakdown in sources (19 business activities according to the NACE classification and household activities) and in waste categories (according to the European Waste Classification for statistical purposes). The information on waste treatment is broken down to five treatment types (recovery, incineration with energy recovery, other incineration, disposal on land and land treatment) and in waste categories. All values are measured in tonnes of waste and in kg per capita, based on the annual average of the population. The Member States are free to decide on the data collection methods. The general options are: surveys, administrative sources, statistical estimations or some combination of methods. For the first reference year 2004 Member States could apply for permission not to deliver part of the information: waste generated by agriculture and fishing and waste generated in the services sector. For this reason this information is missing for some of the countries. Previously data on waste was collected on a voluntary basis with the joint OECD/Eurostat questionnaire on waste.
  • O
    • November 2018
      Source: Ocean Health Index
      Uploaded by: Shakthi Krishnan
      Accessed On: 23 November, 2018
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      Ocean Health Index
    • February 2012
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      The data presented here refer to the latest year available, which corresponds to the late 2000s for most countries. The data on the state of threatened species build on country replies to the Annual Quality Assurance (AQA) of OECD environmental reference series. These data are harmonised through the work of the OECD Working Party on Environmental Information (WPEI). Some where updated or revised on the basis of comments from national Delegates and in the framework of the OECD Environmental Performance Reviews. When interpreting these data, it should be borne in mind that the number of species known does not always accurately reflect the number of species in extistence and that varying definitions can limit comparability accross countries. The data presented here show numbers of known species and threatened species with the aim of indicating the state of mammals, birds, freshwater fish, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants.
    • February 2012
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      This dataset covers the uses of wildlife resources and related pressures from human activities: fish production; catches of fish and other aquatic animals and products and the management of wildlife resources: biosphere reserves and wetlands of international importance; major protected areas.
    • November 2008
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
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      Dataset provides information on selected economic aspects of environmental management. It includes tables on expenditure, which help to identify the financial consequences of environmental policies: public and private pollution abatement and control expenditure; public research and development financing for environmental protection; official development assistance, including aid in support of environment. Dataset also includes data concerning revenues from environmentally-related taxes.
    • August 2014
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Pallavi S
      Accessed On: 07 August, 2014
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      As countries are increasingly using a wide range of policy measures to address agri-environmental issues, indicators provide crucial information to monitor and analyse the effects of those policies on the environment. They can also help the understanding and analysis of the environmental effects of future policy scenarios and agricultural projections. To help improve measurement of the environmental performance of agriculture, OECD has established a set of agri-environmental indicators, with development of the indicators in cooperation with Eurostat and FAO. These indicators inform policy makers and society on the state and trends in agri-environmental conditions, and can provide a valuable aid to policy analysis.
    • December 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Pallavi S
      Accessed On: 03 December, 2018
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      The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2012 presents, in a series of country profiles, the main features, strengths and weaknesses of national STI systems and major recent changes in national STI policy. The statistical dimension of the country profiles has drawn on the work and empirical research conducted by the OECD on the measurement of innovation and the development of internationally comparable STI indicators for policy analysis.
  • P
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 19 February, 2019
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      This dataset provides data on packaging and packaging waste in order to monitor compliance with the quantitative recovery and recycling targets. Data is collected on the basis of the European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste, as last amended. The reporting details are laid down in Commission Decision 2005/270/EC of 22 March 2005 establishing the formats relating to the database system pursuant to Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste. 'Packaging' in this context means all products made of any materials of any nature to be used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and presentation of goods, from raw materials to processed goods, from the producer to the user or the consumer. 'Non-returnable' items used for the same purposes shall also be considered to constitute packaging. 'Packaging waste' means any packaging or packaging material covered by the definition of waste in the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC, excluding production residues. Further information on packaging waste can be found on the following website of Directorate General Environment: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/packaging/index_en.htm
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 11 February, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 March, 2019
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      The domain "Income and living conditions" covers four topics: people at risk of poverty or social exclusion, income distribution and monetary poverty, living conditions and material deprivation, which are again structured into collections of indicators on specific topics. The collection "People at risk of poverty or social exclusion" houses main indicator on risk of poverty or social inclusion included in the Europe 2020 strategy as well as the intersections between sub-populations of all Europe 2020 indicators on poverty and social exclusion. The collection "Income distribution and monetary poverty" houses collections of indicators relating to poverty risk, poverty risk of working individuals as well as the distribution of income. The collection "Living conditions" hosts indicators relating to characteristics and living conditions of households, characteristics of the population according to different breakdowns, health and labour conditions, housing conditions as well as childcare related indicators. The collection "Material deprivation" covers indicators relating to economic strain, durables, housing deprivation and environment of the dwelling.
    • April 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 16 April, 2016
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    • May 2015
      Source: Earth Policy Institute
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 June, 2015
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      This is part of a supporting dataset for Lester R. Brown, Full Planet, Empty Plates: The New Geopolitics of Food Scarcity (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012).
  • R
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 19 February, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 19 February, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • March 2019
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 13 March, 2019
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      The Regional Database contains annual data from 1995 to the most recent available year (generally 2014 for demographic and labour market data, 2013 for regional accounts, innovation and social statistics).   In any analytical study conducted at sub-national levels, the choice of the territorial unit is of prime importance. The territorial grids (TL2 and TL3) used in this database are officially established and relatively stable in all member countries, and are used by many as a framework for implementing regional policies. This classification - which, for European countries, is largely consistent with the Eurostat classification - facilitates greater comparability of regions at the same territorial level. The differences with the Eurostat NUTS classification concern Belgium, Greece and the Netherlands where the NUTS 2 level correspond to the OECD TL3 and Germany where the NUTS1 corresponds to the OECD TL2 and the OECD TL3 corresponds to 97 spatial planning regions (Groups of Kreise). For the United Kingdom the Eurostat NUTS1 corresponds to the OECD TL2. Due to limited data availability, labour market indicators in Canada are presented for a different grid (groups of TL3 regions). Since these breakdowns are not part of the OECD official territorial grids, for the sake of simplicity they are labelled as Non Official Grids (NOG).
    • February 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 24 August, 2016
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
  • S
  • T
    • March 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 30 May, 2018
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      The data presented here refer to the latest year available. The data on the state of threatened species build on country replies to the Annual Quality Assurance (AQA) of OECD environmental reference series. These data are harmonised through the work of the OECD Working Party on Environmental Information (WPEI). Some where updated or revised on the basis of comments from national Delegates and in the framework of the OECD Environmental Performance Reviews. When interpreting these data, it should be borne in mind that the number of species known does not always accurately reflect the number of species in extistence and that varying definitions can limit comparability accross countries. Species assessed as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), or Vulnerable (VU) are referred to as "threatened" species. Reporting the proportion of threatened species on The IUCN Red List is complicated by the fact that not all species groups have been fully evaluated, and also by the fact that some species have so little information available that they can only be assessed as Data Deficient (DD). For many of the incompletely evaluated groups, assessment efforts have focused on species that are likely to be threatened; therefore any percentage of threatened species reported for these groups would be heavily biased (i.e., the % threatened species would likely be an overestimate). The data presented here show numbers of known species (or assessed) and threatened species with the aim of indicating the state of mammals, birds, freshwater fish, reptiles, amphibians, vascular plants, mosses, lichens and invertebrates.
    • December 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 03 December, 2018
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      Mexico: "Total urban wastewater treatment" include some plants whose treatment type is not identified Netherlands: Other waste water treatment, design capacity BOD 1000 kg O2/day: the design capacity is expressed in Total Oxygen Demand (1000 kg O2/day, not BOD). This value is based on pollution equivalents of 136 grams O2 per day.
    • March 2014
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 April, 2014
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      Eurostat Dataset Id:env_wastrtr
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      On the basis of the Regulation on waste statistics (EC) No. 2150/2002, amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 849/2010, data on the generation and treatment of waste is collected from the Member States. The information on waste generation has a breakdown in sources (19 business activities according to the NACE classification and household activities) and in waste categories (according to the European Waste Classification for statistical purposes). The information on waste treatment is broken down to five treatment types (recovery, incineration with energy recovery, other incineration, disposal on land and land treatment) and in waste categories. All values are measured in tonnes of waste and in kg per capita, based on the annual average of the population. The Member States are free to decide on the data collection methods. The general options are: surveys, administrative sources, statistical estimations or some combination of methods. For the first reference year 2004 Member States could apply for permission not to deliver part of the information: waste generated by agriculture and fishing and waste generated in the services sector. For this reason this information is missing for some of the countries. Previously data on waste was collected on a voluntary basis with the joint OECD/Eurostat questionnaire on waste.
  • U
    • October 2014
      Source: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 16 June, 2016
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    • June 2015
      Source: United Nations Environment Programme
      Uploaded by: Pallavi S
      Accessed On: 30 June, 2016
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      The GEO Data Portal is the authoritative source for data sets used by UNEP and its partners in the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) report and other integrated environment assessments. The GEO Data Portal gives access to a broad socio-economic data sets from authoritative sources at global, regional, sub-regional and national levels. The contents of the Data Portal cover environmental themes such as climate, forests and freshwater and many others, as well as socioeconomic categories, including education, health, economy, population and environmental policies.
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 10 February, 2019
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      20.1. Source data
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 March, 2018
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      The indicator shows the population-weighted concentration of ozone to which the urban population is potentially exposed. The principle metric for assessing the effects of ozone on human health is, according to the World Health Organisation’s recommendations (*), the daily maximum 8-hour mean. Ozone effects should be assessed over a full year. Current evidence is insufficient to derive a level below which ozone has no effect on mortality. However, for practical reason it is recommended to consider an exposure parameter which is the sum of excess of daily maximum 8-h means over the cut-off of 70 μg/m3 (35 ppb) calculated for all days in a year. This exposure parameter has been indicated as SOMO35 (sum of means over 35), and is extensively used in the health impact assessments, including the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme leading to the Commission Communication on the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. The indicator is published by Eurostat based on data from the European Environment Agency (EEA). The indicator is a Sustainable Development Indicator (SDI). It has been chosen for the assessment of the progress towards the objectives and targets of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.   tsdph380´s table: Eurobase > Tables by themes > Environment and Energy > Environment > Greenhouse gases/Air polution > Urban population exposure to air pollution by ozone (tsdph380) tsdph380´s table within the SDI set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy> Sustainable Development Indicators > Public health > Determinants of health >Urban population exposure to air pollution by ozone (tsdph380)   (*) UN ECE (2004) Summary report prepared by the joint Task Force on the Health Aspects of Air Pollution of the World Health Organization/European Centre for Environment and Health and the Executive Body, EB.AIR/WG.1/2004/11
    • March 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 March, 2018
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      20.1. Source data
  • W
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      Data on Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is collected on the basis of  Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).The purpose of the collected data is to monitor compliance of countries with the quantitative targets for collection, reuse and recycling, and recovery of WEEE that are set out in Article 7 (collection rate) and article 11 ( recovery targets). Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) introduces stepwise higher collection targets that will apply from reference year 2016 and 2019. Further information on the policy need of data on WEEE can be found on the following website of Directorate General Environment: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/weee/index_en.htm
    • December 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 December, 2016
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      The indicator presents the amount of waste excluding major mineral wastes generated in the EU 28, expressed in kg per inhabitant and year. The indicator allows to monitor waste generation over time for the EU as a whole and to compare the development of waste generation across countries. The indicator covers hazardous and non-hazardous waste from all economic sectors and from households, including waste from waste treatment (secondary waste) but excluding major mineral wastes. The indicator is based on data compiled according to Annex I of the Waste Statistics Regulation (Regulation 2150/2002/EC) and according to aggregates of the material-oriented statistical waste nomenclature EWC-Stat in Annex III of the Waste Statistics Regulation (WStatR). Key policy question: Waste prevention: Are we reducing the generation of waste - Basic data: Eurobase, table Generation of waste (env_wasgen) For more detail see item 13. Relevance
    • February 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 04 March, 2019
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      Waste generated by households (EP-HH) by year and waste category (EWC-Stat 4).
    • January 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 26 January, 2016
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    • March 2018
      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 13 April, 2018
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      This dataset provides information on the level of public equipment installed by countries to managed and abate water pollution. It shows the percentage of national population connected to "public" sewerage networks and related treatment facilities, and the percentage of national population connected to "public" wastewater treatment plants, and the degree of treatment. Connected here means actually connected to a wastewater plants through a public sewage network. Individual private treatment facilities such as septic tanks are not covered here. When analysing these data, it should be kept in mind that the optimal connection rate is not necessarily 100 per cent; it may vary among countries and depends on geographical features and on the spatial distribution of habitats. The interpretation of those data should take into account some variations in countries' definitions, as reflected in metadata.
    • October 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 03 November, 2016
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
    • April 2016
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 09 April, 2016
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    • November 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 November, 2018
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      The indicator presents i) the annual total fresh water abstraction in a country as a percentage of its long term average available water (LTAA) from renewable fresh water resources; ii) the annual groundwater abstraction as a percentage of the country’s long-term annual average groundwater available for abstraction; and iii) the annual surface water abstraction as a percentage of the country’s long-term annual average surface water resources available for abstraction. The latter is calculated as the total fresh water resources (external inflow plus precipitation less evapotranspiration) less groundwater available for abstraction. Total fresh water abstraction includes water removed from any fresh water source, either permanently or temporarily. Mine water and drainage water as well as water abstractions from precipitation are included, whereas water used for hydroelectricity generation (in situ use) is excluded. The minimum period taken into account for the calculation of long term annual averages (LTAA) is 20 years. The warning threshold of 20% for this indicator distinguishes a non-stressed from a water scarce region, with severe scarcity occurring where the WEI exceeds 40%. However the indicator is limited for several reasons: Firstly, the total fresh water abstraction does not distinguish between abstracted water that is redirected after use (and after appropriate treatment) back to the water body or if it is used for irrigation purposes with inevitable evaporation. Secondly, the abstraction and WEI are national data and disregard regional and seasonal changing conditions during the course of the year (water bodies/river basins with different level of water scarcity and hot spots in summer time). Eurostat is in maintaining more differentiated data but coverage is not yet considered sufficient. As soon as the more advanced indicator WEI+ is established, it will replace the WEI. More information can be found in Statistics Explained.
    • March 2019
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 22 March, 2019
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      Water productivity indicates how much economic output is produced per cubic meter of fresh water abstracted (in EUR per m3 or PPS per m3). It serves as a measure of the efficiency of water use.  Total fresh water abstraction includes water removed from any fresh water source, either permanently or temporarily. Mine water and drainage water as well as water abstractions from precipitation are included, whereas water used for hydroelectricity generation (in situ use) is excluded.  The indicator is limited for several reasons:  Firstly, total fresh water abstraction does not distinguish between abstracted water that is redirected after use (and after appropriate treatment) back to the water body or if it is used for irrigation purposes with inevitable evaporation. Secondly, no distinction is made between fresh water abstracted from surface or groundwater.  Lastly, water abstraction statistics are national data and disregard regional and seasonal changing conditions during the year (water bodies / river basins with different level of water scarcity and hot spots in summer time).  Eurostat is in maintaining more differentiated data (groundwater, surface water, regional breakdown), but coverage is not yet considered sufficient.  For the interpretation it should be taken into account that water productivity is strongly influenced by the economic structure and the proportion of water intensive industries. A lower water productivity primarily means that the economic and industrial structure of the country is water use intensive. A less water-consuming economy would show a relatively high water productivity. The change in water productivity is influenced by both ‘real’ productivity improvements and deteriorations, as well as by changes in economic and industry structure.  For the calculation of water productivity Eurostat uses the GDP either in the unit of EUR in chain-linked volumes to the reference year 2010 at 2010 exchange rates or in the unit PPS (Purchasing Power Standard). The unit EUR in chain linked volumes allows observing the water productivity trends over time in a single geographic area, whereas the unit PPS allows to compare countries for the same year. Since GDP is measured in million EUR or million PPS and water abstraction in million cubic meters, water productivity is available in both EUR per m3 and PPS per m3.
    • April 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 12 May, 2018
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
    • November 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 November, 2018
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
    • November 2018
      Source: Eurostat
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 23 November, 2018
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      Yearly data on freshwater resources, water abstraction and use, wastewater treatment (connection rates of resident population to wastewater treatment and treatment capacities of wastewater treatment plants), sewage sludge production and disposal, generation and discharge of wastewater collected biennially by means of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire - Inland Waters. Data aggregation: national territories.
    • August 2018
      Source: World Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 21 August, 2018
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      Climate change is expected to hit developing countries the hardest. Its effects—higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, rising sea levels, and more frequent weather-related disasters—pose risks for agriculture, food, and water supplies. At stake are recent gains in the fight against poverty, hunger and disease, and the lives and livelihoods of billions of people in developing countries. Addressing climate change requires unprecedented global cooperation across borders. The World Bank Group is helping support developing countries and contributing to a global solution, while tailoring our approach to the differing needs of developing country partners. Data here cover climate systems, exposure to climate impacts, resilience, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use. Other indicators relevant to climate change are found under other data pages, particularly Environment, Agriculture & Rural Development, Energy & Mining, Health, Infrastructure, Poverty, and Urban Development.
    • January 2019
      Source: World Bank
      Uploaded by: Knoema
      Accessed On: 30 January, 2019
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      The primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially-recognized international sources. It presents the most current and accurate global development data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates